Union and West End Cemetery

The Union and West End Cemetery is located in center city Allentown. The main entrance is on 10th Street at 10th and Chew Streets. The cemetery is mantained by a dedicated group of volunteers. Ten board members (also volunteers) serve the cemetery association and manage the finances, make application for grants, solicit donations and participate in the maintenance of the cemetery.

Monday, January 01, 2007



As you read the Civil War posts to the cemetery blog, particularly those detailing battles, you will run across the reference to 'skirmishers'. The word skirmisher originated with the French and had to do with sword fighting, i.e., reaching out to make contact with an enemy. By the time the Civil War was fought, the term skirmisher had nothing to do with swords or sword fighting, but described the men that were deployed out ahead of the army to probe for the enemy.

Skirmish lines often served as the eyes and ears of regiments or brigades on the march. Skirmishers were sent forward or along the flanks of moving bodies of troops to determine the whereabouts of the enemy or to draw the enemy out.

Napoleon had relied extensively on skirmishers and thus, Civil War infantry manuals included skirmishing tactics and commands. Officers and troops were drilled for skirmisher duty. For officers, these drills included how to deploy skirmishers, how they should advance, proper skirmish firing, rallying the skirmishers, and deploying a battalion as skirmishers.

Companies were often deployed as skirmishers in front of a regiment or at a flank. A typical order for the deployment of a platoon: "First platoon—as skirmishers, on the left file, take intervals—march! The men thus summoned would march forward, separate into lines and then break into groups of four. The distance between the groups depended upon the terrain and the circumstances, but was not suppose to exceed forty paces. If the skirmishers were to be deployed on the flank the command would be: "Second platoon—as skirmishers, on the right flank, take intervals—march!"

Once out as skirmishers, the commands used were standard military commands. "Forward, march!" "Halt!" In retreat, march! This last command was often "Retreat, double quick, march!" Skirmishers frequently unexpectedly came in contact with enemy forces and quick action was necessary. In these circumstances, one did not wait for an order to fire! At such times, the normal order of commands often broke down, and it was every man for himself.

If a unit had access to a cavalry unit, it would not be unusual to utilize the cavalry regiment as skirmishers.

If a battalion were already in battle lines, platoons could be deployed forward as a fighting force or called back into line as needed after serving one of the functions most vital to a Civil War army: "feeling" the enemy, thus avoiding surprise, and protecting the main body of troops.

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